Get to know the culture of Peru

Peru, the land of the legendary Incas, has an exuberant mix of Hispanic and native traditions. At the same time, in Peru, the combination of indigenous heritage and the Catholic religion is undeniable. Peruvian culture has been able to conquer millions of travellers from all over the world, do you want to be one of them? Join us in this article!

Characteristics of Peru's culture

History of the culture of Peru

Peru's cultural diversity is the result of a confluence of traditions and customs of the different ethnic groups that have inhabited the country. In this way, ancient peruvian culture begins with andean civilisationwhich was forged more than 15,000 years ago. They left a great legacy and carried out hunting and gathering activities, in fact, traces of agricultural crops of Nanchoc and Guitarrero were found.

However, historians claim that Peruvian culture properly speaking began to emerge around 3200 BC with the appearance of the Caral civilisation, which flourished for over 1000 years. Around 1800 BC, Caral disappeared, giving way to other cultural centres, but leaving an indelible mark and consolidating Andean civilisation.

Subsequently, the Incas assimilated and developed all the cultural influences of the territory they dominated, thus creating an imperial state. In Peru, on the other hand, there was a profound social and economic transformation thanks to the Spanish empire. By the 18th century, the awareness of being Peruvian began to manifest itself. At the beginning of the 19th century, Peruvian independence helped to consolidate the culture of this territory.

Cultures of Peru

How many cultures were there in Ancient Peru? According to experts, in this nation there were about 13 cultures. The cultures of Ancient Peru are the following:

  • Caral: It was crucial in the emergence of the first complex societies. The most important thing about this civilisation is that it left large constructions of extensive cities, with monumental buildings. It began to develop between 3000 and 1800 BC.
  • Chavín: It had a major influence on much of what is now Peruvian territory. They were characterised by their mastery of stone and also believed in gods with feline features and snake-like features. It developed between 1000 BC and 200 BC.
  • Paracas: This culture of Peru had its influence on the south coast between 700 BC and 200 AD. It was divided into two phases, the Caverns and the Necropolis.
  • Vicus: They had a realistic sculptural tendency and appeared between 500 BC and 500 AD in the northern coastal area of Peru.
  • Mochica: This culture developed between the 2nd and 8th centuries. They stand out for the construction of irrigation canals and monumental religious-administrative complexes such as the Huacas del Sol and de la Luna.

More cultures of Peru

  • Nazca: They had agriculture as their main activity and the famous Nazca Lines were their maximum representation with hieroglyphs in the desert. It developed between 100 AD and 700 AD.
  • Tiahuanaco: Its origins date back to the Early Intermediate period (250 BC) and it is renowned for its architecture.
  • Lima: This Peruvian culture can be recognised by the use of fish and snake figures linked together in geometric shapes. It developed from 100 AD to 800 AD.
  • Huari or Wari: They fought throughout the length and breadth of Peruvian territory. It flourished from approximately the 7th to the 13th century AD.
  • Chimú: It was established on the northern coast of Peru from 1100 to 1400 AD.
  • Chincha: This culture was dedicated to agriculture, fishing and trade. They were located in one of the largest valleys on the Pacific Ocean coast of Peru and developed between 1200 AD and 1460 AD.
  • Sican: It is an ancient Peruvian culture that manifested itself between the 8th and 14th centuries A.D. It was one of the most important cultures in Peru, as they surprised us with their display of hydraulic engineering, their irrigation systems and their skills as navigators.
  • Huanca: They traded with neighbouring kingdoms. They were considered excellent warriors. Their origins date back to the Late Intermediate period, between 1000 AD and 1460 AD.

Other very important cultures of Peru are the Aymara, Chachapoyas and Inca.

Arts, language and literature

Another characteristic of Peru's cultural diversity is its literature, the first evidence of which can be found in the anonymous play Ollantay. Years later, it can be said that peruvian literature becomes an extension of spanish literature. From the Republican period onwards, there are outstanding writers such as Carlos Augusto Salaverry, Luis Benjamín Cisneros, Felipe Pardo y Aliaga and Manuel Ascencio Segura.

On the other hand, in the various cities in Peru you will find samples of handicrafts in materials such as clay, wood, textiles, stone, gold, silver, among others. The most extraordinary thing about the art in the Peruvian culture is that has been enriched without losing its originality.. The most outstanding dances are the diablada puneña, the llamerada, the pandilla puneña, the arayachis and the negritos.

One of the questions of Peru's general culture is what is its official language. In that sense, Peru is the most culturally and linguistically diverse country in the region. The majority of its inhabitants speak Spanish, but there are also 47 native languages. The official languages of Peru are Spanish, Quechua and Aymara.

Religion

The predominant religion in this country is Catholic.But in recent years there has also been a growth in evangelical believers and another part of the population identifies itself as agnostic or atheist.

Typical Peruvian food

The Organization of American States named the nation's gastronomy as one of the best in the world. Cultural Heritage of the Americas for the World. Peru is believed to have around 491 typical dishes and approximately 250 traditional desserts. It is also an example of fusion cuisine, due to its long multicultural history.

10 customs and traditions of Peru

1. The Festival of the Negritos of Huanuco

If you like Christmas, then you will love to be a spectator of the Fiesta de Los Negritos de Huánuco. It is celebrated between 24 December and 15 January. Seek the adoration of the Child Jesus and various activities and exhibitions of dances from colonial times take place. It originated centuries ago when slaves were given time off to celebrate the birth of Jesus.

The costumes used during this festival are related to the fact that slaves were given colourful and colourful clothes and clothing. Likewise, on the streets you will see people wearing a black leather mask with thick lips and bulging eyes symbolising slaves.

2. Payment to land in Peru

On the first day of August, one of the most important customs of the Peruvian culture takes place: the payment to the earth. It has its origins in Ancient Peru and consists of making some ancestral rites to ensure a good harvest and give thanks to Mother Earth. It is carried out in two ways, through worship in individual homes or offerings and in communal ceremonies on the summits.

This rite takes place in August because it is believed that Mother Earth is thirsty and hungry at this time of year. So, what is done is to offer them all kinds of products, such as coca leaves, cereals, silver, chicha, llama foetuses or animal fat, that meet their needs. One of the particularities of this is that tourists can participate, in fact, it is known as mystical tourism in Peru. Are you up for it?

3. Inti Raymi or the Feast of the Sun

The Fiesta of the Sun is one of the Peruvian traditions that coincides with the winter solstice. It has been performed since the time of the Incas and its history began because it was believed that on that date the Sun God was reborn to start a new annual cycle, according to the historian Inca Garcilaso de la Vega.

How is it celebrated? In most of the country, with a theatrical performance, where a script is followed including the simulation of the sacrifice of two llamaswhich supposedly serves to predict the future. In the city of Cayambe they do ceremonial baths, which consist of leaving their clothes (which they will wear in the dances and plays) at night in sacred places to purify themselves with the energy of the night. And the Fiesta del Sol is increasingly attended by tourists!

4. Drinking beer in Peru

When you drink a beer in this country, you may get a culture shock. And that is because there is a custom of drink in one glass. The process is as follows: the beer is poured and the bottle must be passed to your partner, then you drink the whole glass and the remaining foam must be thrown to the earth as an offering to Mother Earth or Pachamama, then you give the glass to your friend, who does the same procedure; and so on according to the number of people in the group.

The origins of this tradition are unclear, but it is quite popular. And the explanation probably lies in the fact that drinking from the same glass strengthens bonds of friendshipwhile throwing some on the ground is a way of thanking them for their blessings.

5. Dance of the Scissors or Gala Dance

Thanks to its antiquity and symbolic value, the dance of the scissors is one of the most important traditions of Peruvian culture. It has been recognised by Unesco as a Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Also, in 1995, it was designated as a national cultural heritage site by the Peruvian National Institute of Culture.

This dance derives from the tusuq laykasThe dance, a type of dance that was mainly practised by pre-Hispanic priests, soothsayers, sorcerers and healers. It can be considered as a competition, where two dancers dance in turn challenging each other to overcome the risk of the steps they perform. The main instrument is two separate metal plates that together take the shape of scissors, hence the name.

6. Feast of the Virgen de la Candelaria

The Feast of the Virgen de la Candelaria is considered a cultural heritage of Peru. In fact, was declared Intangible Heritage of Humanity by Unesco.. This festivity lasts approximately one week. It is celebrated during the month of February in the city of Puno and includes cultural, religious and other activities with a much more festive character.

Regardless of your religion, participating in this festivity is an opportunity to experience first hand the celebration of "Mamita Candelaria". Usually there are demonstrations with dancers and singers of the Quechua and Aymara ethnic groups from rural areas Don't miss it!

7. Pace of life in Peru

Tourists accustomed to big cities and the incessant movement of people moving from one place to another may feel a bit disoriented in Peru.Here the pace is much, much slower! Peruvians are characterised by being quite calm people and no matter how busy you are, they will always go at their own speed. In the interior of the country, you will notice that everything goes even slower.

8. Feast of St. John

Now it's time to talk about one of the most iconic traditions of the Peruvian Amazon! The feast of San Juan, which takes place on the 24th of June. It was introduced into the country by the Catholic missions.They had a great influence and even declared Saint John the Baptist as the Patron Saint of the Peruvian Amazon.

During the Fiesta de San Juan there are masses, live music and a variety of cultural events. There is an activity known as the yunza, which is about dancing around a tree decorated with giftsThe aim is to knock him down little by little with machete blows. The couple that manages to knock him down must organise the next year's yunza, as well as keep all the presents!

9. Carnivals

Carnivals in Peru are an unmissable part of Peru's culture! The best ones are those held in Cajamarca, Puno, Ayacucho, Apurímac, San Martín and Tacna, however, all over the country you will be able to see this beautiful tradition. Carnivals are colourful and there are often games that involve getting filled with water, flour, eggs or paint - if you take part, you have to be willing to get a bit dirty!

The history of Peru's carnival is a somewhat bloody one. In this regard, in the 19th century, some travellers described the Lima carnivals as a mixture of savagery and joy without limit. This led to a crackdown on those who celebrated it. Nowadays, it is much safer, and you will be able to admire an abundance of folkloric dances and Christian traditions. The Peruvian carnivals begin a few days before the Ash Wednesdaywhich is usually dated between 4 February and 10 March depending on the computus.

10. Marinera Festival

¿You are visiting Trujillo? If you do it in January, you will be at the perfect time to see the Marinera Festival. It is one of the most beautiful dances of the Peruvian culture.. Usually, a public competition is held, where the best Marinera dancers are chosen.

This cultural event has been called national cultural heritage by the Peruvian government. Similarly, there is a traditional Paso horse competition organised by the Asociación de Criadores y Propietarios de Caballos de Paso de La Libertad (Association of Breeders and Owners of Paso Horses of La Libertad). To the delight of the public, these horses wear decorative garments and the riders dress as "chalanes trujillanos".

We cannot end this article without mentioning llamas, animals that have been key to the Peruvian people since pre-Columbian times. Llamas contributed to the development of the Inca empire from 1400 to 1533. And not only do they provide meat to eat, but they have also been useful for transporting goods.

Undoubtedly, the importance of cultural diversity in Peru is gigantic, because it has allowed them to be the society they are today. It is also admired that have made enormous efforts not to lose their customs and traditions.


Source: Народы Перу: культура и традициии (xn--8sbiecm6bhdx8i.xn--p1ai)

Related posts

The 5 most typical foods of Peru

Peruvian gastronomy is renowned worldwide for its diversity and exquisiteness. Here we present the 5 most typical dishes of... Read More

Typical traditions in Peru

Home Peru is a country with a rich and diverse culture, and has many typical traditions that are meaningful to its people.... Read More

Get to know the nature of Lima Peru

Nature of Lima Peru: The most beautiful animal of Lima Peru Within the nature of Lima Peru there are many animals but one... Read More

Join The Discussion

Search

May 2024

  • M
  • T
  • W
  • T
  • F
  • S
  • S
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • 7
  • 8
  • 9
  • 10
  • 11
  • 12
  • 13
  • 14
  • 15
  • 16
  • 17
  • 18
  • 19
  • 20
  • 21
  • 22
  • 23
  • 24
  • 25
  • 26
  • 27
  • 28
  • 29
  • 30
  • 31

June 2024

  • M
  • T
  • W
  • T
  • F
  • S
  • S
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • 7
  • 8
  • 9
  • 10
  • 11
  • 12
  • 13
  • 14
  • 15
  • 16
  • 17
  • 18
  • 19
  • 20
  • 21
  • 22
  • 23
  • 24
  • 25
  • 26
  • 27
  • 28
  • 29
  • 30
0 Adults
0 Children
Pets
Size
Precio
Comodidades
Facilities
Search

May 2024

  • M
  • T
  • W
  • T
  • F
  • S
  • S
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • 7
  • 8
  • 9
  • 10
  • 11
  • 12
  • 13
  • 14
  • 15
  • 16
  • 17
  • 18
  • 19
  • 20
  • 21
  • 22
  • 23
  • 24
  • 25
  • 26
  • 27
  • 28
  • 29
  • 30
  • 31
0 Huespedes

Compare listings

Compare

Compare experiences

Compare
en_GBEnglish